- SECTION 1: PRINCIPLES OF DIET FORMULATION
- PRINCIPLES AND DECISIONS MAKING IN DIET FORMULATION
- SECTION 2: NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS
- PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS
- MACRO MINERALS
- TRACE MINERALS AND VITAMINS
- FEED ADDITIVES
- UPPER LIMITS OF USAGE FOR FEED INGREDIENTS
- SECTION 3: NUTRITION PROGRAM BY PHASE OF PRODUCTION
- THE BASIC NUTRITIONAL PROGRAM
- SOW FEEDING MILESTONES
- DYNAMIC DECISION MAKING TOOLS
- CARCASS QUALITY
- FEEDINGS PIC PIGS UNDER SPECIFIC PROGRAMS
- FEED MANUFACTURING
- FEEDING SYSTEMS, FEEDER SPACE, DRINKING SYSTEMS
PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins that allow for highly efficient lean growth. PIC pigs have high potential for lean deposition, even at heavy market weights. Thus, an understanding of the impacts of each amino acid in protein deposition as well as other metabolic processes is important to maximize the success with PIC pigs.
Once the most economic energy level is defined, the SID Lysine (Lys) level is specified based on the Lys to Calorie ratio requirement of the pig. To obtain optimum performance, all amino acids must meet the requirement.
EXPRESSING AA REQUIREMENTS
Amino acids can be expressed in multiple ways (total AA basis, apparent AA basis, etc). However, since ingredient amino acids differ in their digestibility, standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid values are preferred to accurately formulate diets.
FORMULATING TO AN IDEAL AMINO ACID PATTERN
The NRC (2012) has defined essential amino acid recommendations for each physiological phase. NRC served as the basis for PIC recommendations when access to data was limited, but recent research-based modifications have been made based on the research work of PIC, Ajinomoto Heartland, production systems, and universities. Requirements for amino acids other than Lys are normally expressed in relation to the level of lys since it is most likely to be first limiting in the diet. This guide specifies the SID Lys requirement using NRC (2012) ingredient loading values. The suggested ratio of dietary amino acids for each phase is presented in the nutrient specification tables at the end of this manual.