- SECTION 1: PRINCIPLES OF DIET FORMULATION
- PRINCIPLES AND DECISIONS MAKING IN DIET FORMULATION
- SECTION 2: NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS
- PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS
- MACRO MINERALS
- TRACE MINERALS AND VITAMINS
- FEED ADDITIVES
- UPPER LIMITS OF USAGE FOR FEED INGREDIENTS
- SECTION 3: NUTRITION PROGRAM BY PHASE OF PRODUCTION
- THE BASIC NUTRITIONAL PROGRAM
- SOW FEEDING MILESTONES
- DYNAMIC DECISION MAKING TOOLS
- CARCASS QUALITY
- FEEDINGS PIC PIGS UNDER SPECIFIC PROGRAMS
- FEED MANUFACTURING
- FEEDING SYSTEMS, FEEDER SPACE, DRINKING SYSTEMS
TRACE MINERALS AND VITAMINS
Adequate supplementation of trace minerals and vitamins is important due to its variety of roles in regulatory functions. Their roles can range from maintaining a strong feet to maximizing reproduction efficiency.
PIC recommendations were established after being extensively compared to the recommendations of universities and major nutrition groups. A systematic allowance was made in relation to the NRC recognizing that this information is based on studies under nearly ideal conditions. The values are micronutrient additions and give no credit for ingredient content.
There are inorganic and organic forms of trace minerals such as zinc, manganese, iron, copper and selenium available in the market with different forms (i.e., chelates, proteinates, etc. for organic and sulfates, oxides, etc. for inorganic forms). These forms may have different bioavailability and this should be taken into account. Vitamin requirements are presented at the nutrient specifications table at the end of this manual. For an in-depth review on vitamins please refer to Matte and Lauridsen (2013) and for a review in minerals please refer to Hill (2013).