- SECTION 1: PRINCIPLES OF DIET FORMULATION
- PRINCIPLES AND DECISIONS MAKING IN DIET FORMULATION
- SECTION 2: NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS
- PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS
- MACRO MINERALS
- TRACE MINERALS AND VITAMINS
- FEED ADDITIVES
- UPPER LIMITS OF USAGE FOR FEED INGREDIENTS
- SECTION 3: NUTRITION PROGRAM BY PHASE OF PRODUCTION
- THE BASIC NUTRITIONAL PROGRAM
- SOW FEEDING MILESTONES
- DYNAMIC DECISION MAKING TOOLS
- CARCASS QUALITY
- FEEDINGS PIC PIGS UNDER SPECIFIC PROGRAMS
- FEED MANUFACTURING
- FEEDING SYSTEMS, FEEDER SPACE, DRINKING SYSTEMS
Ensuring high carcass yield and pork quality is one of the roles of swine nutrition.
HIGH-FIBER INGREDIENTS ON CARCASS YIELD
It has been shown by multiple studies (Jacela et al., 2010b; Asmus et al., 2014; Coble et al., 2015) that feeding high-fiber ingredients until market can reduce yield. It is recommended that a diet with less than 9% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) be fed for 15 to 20 days prior to market. Figure L1 shows the effects of increasing NDF on carcass yield. This has also been shown to be the most economic approach in multiple economic scenarios; however, there are scenarios when high-fiber ingredients can be cheap enough to economically offset the loss in yield.
FIGURE L1. EFFECTS OF INCREASING NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER ON CARCASS YIELD (COBLE ET AL., 2015).
PORK FAT QUALITY
The current “standard” measure of fat firmness is iodine value. Iodine value is a measure of the unsaturation of fats and is expressed in terms of the amount of iodine absorbed by a fat sample. Basically, the iodine value (IV) determines the unsaturation level of the fat through the number of double bonds in the fatty acids. The focal point of nutrition should be on the “complete” diet and not individual ingredients within the diets. There are multiple prediction equations for iodine value of fat carcass available (Wu et al., 2016), the key is to be consistent on the equation used and when comparing estimates. A predicted backfat IV equation was developed for PIC pigs (predicted backfat IV = 0.32 × (IVP) + 52.4; Technical memo 153). Efforts to manage fat quality should be aligned with the expectations set forth by pork processors.
Research has proven that when dietary linoleic (Figure L2) and linolenic acid is increased this will cause IV to increase. Producers must work closely with their nutritionists to implement ingredients with high linoleic acid in their diets.
FIGURE L2. THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY LINOLEIC ACID ON BODY FAT IODINE VALUE (PIC TECHNICAL MEMO 153).
A useful Iodine value prediction spreadsheet is available at http://www.asi.k-state.edu/species/swine/researchand-extension/calculators.html. For more information access PIC’s summary on pork fat quality at http://www.pic.com/Images/Users/1/SalesPortal/Newsletters/CuttingEdge/CuttingEdge1stQ10New.pdf
For more in-depth information on fat quality please refer to Apple (2013).