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Pig Journal Volume: 65
Publication date: June 2011

General Section

SWINE INFLUENZA: A DISEASE OF RENEWED GLOBAL INTEREST
R.M. IRVINE, I.H. BROWN

Abstract
The epidemiology of influenza virus in pig populations is unique,with different lineages of viruses identified based on spatiotemporal characteristics. Co-circulation of influenza viruses leads to the generation of new strains through genetic reassortment, and the consequences of independent evolution of influenza viruses in pigs gives rise to considerable genetic diversity at continental level. Whilst the pig has been postulated as a mixing vessel for the generation of new influenza viruses, more recent work would indicate that this is a complex dynamic. However, the emergence of pandemic Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) 2009 virus (pH1N1) in humans is postulated to have derived from pigs. Although there are structured networks for the surveillance of influenza in pigs, particularly in Europe and North America, co-ordinated surveillance is lacking at a global level. The results of such surveillance have detected changes in virus diversity through the occurrence of novel reassortant viruses containing genes from both avian, human and swine sources. The correlates for successful inter-species transmission are multi-factorial and include host, virus and the impact of prior immunity to endemic swine influenza viruses.

The pH1N1 virus has spread from humans to pigs in numerous countries. The future dynamics of infection with this virus in pig populations will be complex and impacted by the immune status and characteristics of viruses circulating in pig populations in different regions. Events subsequent to the emergence of the pandemic virus have provided further focus and interest in pigs relating to the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses relevant to veterinary public health.

Short Communications

EFFECT OF THAWING FROZEN BOAR SPERM IN 50% SEMINAL PLASMA ON SOW FERTILITY
J.C. GARCIA, J. C. DOMINGUEZ, R. MANJARIN, B.ALEGRE, R.N. KIRKWOOD

Abstract
To examine the effects of seminal plasma, 97 multiparous Yorkshire sows each received 900 IUeCG at weaning and then 5mg pLH 80 hours later to control time of ovulation.At 36 hours after pLH, sows were assigned on the basis of parity to receive a single intrauterine insemination of 3 x 109 fresh sperm(CON) or 5 x 109 cryo-preserved sperm thawed (FT) into 80mL extender without FT or with 50% Seminal Plasma (SP) (FT-SP).Compared with CONsows, FT-SP sows had decreased (P<0.01) farrowing rate and FT sows were intermediate. Litter sizes were unaffected by treatment.

Case Studies

PERACUTE GLÄSSER’S DISEASE CAUSED BY HAEMOPHILUS PARASUIS SEROTYPE 10 CAUSING SIGNIFICANT LOSSES AMONG FINISHER PIGS AFTER A MEDICATED PARTIAL DEPOPULATION
B.W. STRUGNELL, N.J.WOOLFENDEN

Abstract
This case study describes a severe outbreak of peracute Glässer’s disease affecting finisher pigs at the point of slaughter on a 600 sow indoor four weekly batch farrowing farrow-to-finish herd.The affected group of pigs was part of the first batch of growing pigs to be produced immediately after amedicated partial depopulation programme for the eradication of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M.hyopneumoniae), the cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSv) from the unit. The case study aims to discuss:
  • The epidemiology of Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) on this unit and the influence of the partial depopulation on it. Did the health interventions increase the risk of the Glässer’s disease outbreak?
  • Potential interventions for mitigating these risks in future depopulation programmes.
  • The financial implications of the disease outbreak and whether they should influence the decision to undergo interventions to improve health by eradicating pathogens.


FIRST REPORTED CASES OF PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII F. SP.SUIS DETECTED IN PORCINE LUNGS IN THE UK
A.E. COURTENAY, B.W.STRUGNELL, M.E.WESSELS

Abstract
Two cases are described in which Pneumocystis carinii (P.carinii) was demonstrated in the lungs of pigs. In case one, pigs were aged five weeks and from a 110 sow, farrow to finish herd on a mixed livestock farm. Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) was concurrently present. In case two, the single affected pig was 12 weeks old and originated from a 450 sow, indoor, breeder finisher. Intercurrent disease was present in the form of gastric ulceration and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv).

Pneumocystis carinii, an ascomycetes fungus, has not been described in pigs in the UK before, although it has been recognised at least twice in the past through histological examination of pigs’ lungs by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) (Robert Higgins, unpublished observations). The fungus has been identified elsewhere in normal and diseased pigs’ lungs.

Awareness of the appearance of the fungus in histological sections may lead to diagnosis of further cases and clarification of the clinical significance of the infection in UK pigs.

Research Papers

16S RRNA PCR-RFLP FOR SPECIATION OF MEAT OF PORCINE ORIGIN IN PROCESSED AND ADMIXED MEATS
A. SHARMA, S. KUMAR, N. SHARMA, D. SHARMA

Abstract
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) using 16S Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene was explored to test its effectiveness in the identification of pig meat in raw, cooked and admixed meat. Critical perusal of the restriction maps of ~591 base pairs (bp) 16S Ribonucleic acid (RNA) fragment sequences from pig as well as other livestock identified RsaI restriction enzyme (RsaI) specific to pig, yielding 343 bp and 251 bp fragments in the pig. In other livestock species such as cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep, no restriction enzyme site was found. In all the samples of raw pork, the restriction digestion of 594 bp fragment with RsaI yielded the 343 bp and 251 bp fragments,with no restriction digestion in all other livestock species i.e. cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep. PCR-RFLP with RsaI of 594 bp fragment was amplified from three different types of cooked meat DNA samples from pig i.e. cooking at 72°C for 30min, steam cooking at 90°C for 30min and autoclaving at 120°C/15 lb/30min and yielded similar restriction enzyme digestion profile as for the raw meat Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This suggested no effect of cooking on PCR-RFLP. Similarly, PCR-RFLP was able to differentiate the origin of meat in mixed meat samples quite consistently up to the level of 25%.However, at levels below 10%results were not consistent.

DEVELOPMENT OF PIG ACCOMMODATION SUITABLE FOR TESTING THE EFFECTS OF HYGIENE AND DISINFECTION ON MRSA CARRIER PIGS
E.S. GIOTIS, D. TITO, J. BOSTOCK, J. ZITA, P. KLUSON, J. KRYSA, F.YIGIT, K. KOLD, A. LOEFFLER, L. GUARDABASSI, D.H. LLOYD, K.D.C. STÄRK

Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398 is now established in pigs in many countries worldwide and poses a zoonotic threat to those in contact with pigs. Its environmental persistence dictates that decontamination be a key component in controlling its transmission to animals and humans. The European Union (EU) funded “Preventing community and nosocomial spread and infection with MRSA ST398 – instruments for accelerated control and integrated risk management of antimicrobial resistance” (PILGRIM) project is aiming to identify novel, cost effective and efficient MRSA ST398 control measures. Modular chambers, equipped with decontamination measures, in which MRSA-carrier pigs can be accommodated, have been developed to enable their efficacy to be evaluated. Measures include Ultraviolet light subtype A, long wave (UVA) activated photocatalytic surfaces, an air purification system and mists containing antimicrobial electrochemical solutions developed by PILGRIM partners. These chambers will be made available to provide a model for evaluation and refinement of other decontamination measures for use in farming and in human health care.

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE WEANING TO OESTRUS INTERVAL AND DURATION OF OESTRUS IN FEMALE SWINE
I.P. DE CASTRO, J.A. SANTANA, C.F. OSAVA, R.V. CINTRA, H.B. GRAFF, R.C.ANTUNES

Abstract
The objective was to analyse the influence of maximum temperature (Tmax) and birth order (BO) in duration of oestrus (DE) and weaning to oestrus interval (WEI), and to identify the correlation between weaning to oestrus interval and duration of oestrus in commercial farm female swines. For the experiment, 183 females were used from first to ninth swine-birth order and weaning to oestrus interval between 24 and 168 hours and were collected in a spreadsheet: the number of female farrowing, day and time of weaning, day and time that the female was in oestrus, day and time that the female received the first, second and third doses of semen, day and time that the female left oestrus and maximum ambient temperature in the house during pregnancy. Statistical analysis was done using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient with p<0,05 in BioEstat® 5.0 software. The maximum ambient temperature did not influence the duration of oestrus or the weaning oestrus interval. There was a negative correlation between weaning to oestrus interval and duration of oestrus, between birth order and weaning to oestrus interval.A positive correlation between the birth order and duration of oestrus was also found. The maximum ambient temperature had no effect on oestrus duration or the interval from weaning to oestrus. The females with prolonged weaning to oestrus interval had a shorter duration of oestrus, a higher birth order, shorter interval from weaning to oestrus and longer duration of oestrus.

Clinical Practice

THE EAST ANGLIAN SWINE DYSENTERY PRODUCERS CHARTER
J.WADDILOVE

Abstract
Following the introduction of Swine Dysentery into East Anglia, the disease spread to 29 units by a variety of means, including 55.2% not by pig movement. A voluntary charter,The Swine Dysentery Producers Charter,was set up with the aims of mapping the disease and how it spread plus providing advice to limit spread and encourage producers and veterinarians to control and eliminate the disease. Producers signed up to the charter and, through this, a high level of success was achieved in reducing the disease so that, at the time of writing, 27 of 29 farms were free and the remaining two were establishing freedom.No further outbreaks had occurred in the area.

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN BRACHYSPIRA HYODYSENTERIAE: AN INCREASING PROBLEM
P.VYT

Abstract
Since 2007, isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) not responding to treatment with pleuromutilins, were reported in Belgium. Subsequently, a monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of this bacteria was installed. Routinely determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) showed a high degree of decreased susceptibility to tiamulin (45-53%) and valnemulin (40-45%). These data were in accordance with the response to treatment.

The susceptibility to alternative molecules such as tylvalosin, and to combinations of antibiotics were assessed in vitro. A susceptibility of 67-69% of the isolates was recorded for tylvalosin. Results for combinations of antimicrobials showed that 39% of the isolates had a lower MIC for tiamulin with addition of 1µg/ml doxycycline compared to tiamulin alone. The combination of tylvalosin with 1µg/ml doxycycline rendered a lower MIC for 52% of the isolates compared to the MIC of tylvalosin on itself.

In conclusion, the reduced susceptibility to pleuromutilins for half of the isolates of B. hyodysenteriae enhances the difficulty of eliminating swine dysentery at farm level. Following this in vitro data, an alternative can be tylvalosin or in some cases, from a combination of tiamulin or tylvalosin with doxycycline. The latter findings have to be confirmed in practice.

THE COST OF ENDEMIC DISEASE IN PIG PRODUCTION
J. RICHARDSON

Abstract
Commercial pig production has a single objective – to make an acceptable financial return on the capital invested in the enterprise. Efficient production has a significant effect upon financial returns and one of the key determinants of efficiency is herd health status per se, plus the correct management of the prevailing health status. The Pig Veterinary Society (PVS) last reviewed the economics of pig disease 35 years ago in 1975 (PVS proceedings, 1975).

This paper details the relevance of knowing the cost of disease, current cost estimates, single and multi-pathogen influences, a methodology by which the cost of disease can be determined, and the results from a survey of veterinary surgeons into the effect of certain diseases on performance and ultimately, their cost.

SURVIVAL OF INDIGENOUS PIGS UNDER INTENSIVE FARMING IN AN ORGANISED FARM IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA
A. GOPINATHAN , S.M.K. KARTHICKEYAN, S.N. SIVASELVAM

Abstract
A study on mortality of indigenous pigs was undertaken to assess the pre-and post-weaning loss and to formulate strategies for improving survival. Out of 568 piglets born from 1994 to 2001, an over all mortality of 28.9% was recorded.The average pre-and post-weaning mortality over the years was estimated to be 11.41% (4.11 to 26.19) and 10.31% (7.46 to 19.05) respectively, with pneumonia and enteritis as the major causes.As the pre-weaning stage was found to be the most vulnerable period, suitable precautionary measures to control pre-weaning mortality in newborn piglets were discussed.

 
 
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