## Section: Stockmanship Standards

### Water Use and Slurry

Water
Example of the water balance of a 60 kg liveweight pig fed a compound diet and gaining 700g/day in a thermoneutral environment. (Gill 1989)

 Water Used / Lost ml Water Consumed / Formed ml Growth1 480 Food Water5 380 Respiration2 580 Food Oxidation6 450 Skin3 420 Faeces4 970 Urine8 290-1710 Water consumed7 1910-3330 Total 2740-4160 Total 2740-4160

Assumption:
1. Growth (700g/day) assumed to be 50% water, estimated from sequential slaughter data.
2. Respiration loss assumed to be 0.58 l/day.
3. Insensible moisture loss from skin assumes 13.4 g/m2 per hour at thermoneutral temperature and 70% RH. Surface area = 0.1 W0.63.
4. Ad libitum fed pig of 60 kg liveweight assumed to eat 2.72 kg food (1.85 kg DM). DM digestibility assumed to be 82% and faecal DM 30%.
5. Compound diet assumed to be 14% moisture.
6. Metabolic water produced is 7.43 ml/kg W per day.
7. Water intake derived by difference.
8. Assuming that urine is 95% water, a pig is expected to have a renal water loss of between 4.75 and 28.5 ml/kg W per day.
Slurry Production
Estimation of the effluent storage capacity required for a 200 sow unit with followers to bacon weight assuming at any one time a total pig population of 2000 of mixed ages. Storage required for four months. (Barber 1992)

 Calculation: 68 lactating sow at 12 litres per day 0.816 m3 132 dry sows at 8 litres per day 1.056 m3 1800 followers at 4 litres per day 7.2 m3 Washing/waste 2000 pigs at 0.5 litres per day 1.0 m3 Total slurry production per day 10.072 m3 In four months (122 days) 1229 m3

Assumptions:
1 sow and litter to weaning will excrete 12 litres per day
1 dry sow excretes 8 litres per day
1 pig from weaning to bacon weight (95 kg) fed dry meal excretes 4 litres per day
Water from drinkers and cleaning pens 0.5 litres per day

 BACK TO PIG STOCKMANSHIP STANDARDS CONTENTS PAGE Extracted from Garth Pig Stockmanship Standards* written by Dr John Carr. You can buy this book HERE *Published by 5M Enterprises Limited