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PED: New Virus Strains Detected in US Pigs

02 February 2014
Iowa State University Extension

US - The viruses from five cases of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea (PED) recently investigated by Iowa State University have a different gene sequence from those investigated since April 2013, showing greater similarity to strains isolated in China between 2004 and 2012.

Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL) is offering PED virus (PEDV) S1 (first 2.2kb portion of the spike gene) sequencing to the clientele to help determine the genetic relatedness and molecular epidemiology of PEDV in US swine. During the time periods of 24 to 29 January 2014, PEDV S1 sequencing was performed on 15 PEDV cases at ISU VDL.

Among them, PEDV S1 sequences from 10 cases (ISU cases 6 to 15) are similar to each other and to the PEDV strains identified in US swine since April 2013 (99.1 to 100 per cent nucleotide identities).

In distinct contrast, the PEDV S1 sequences from the other five cases (ISU cases 1 to 5) only have 93.9 to 94.6 per cent nucleotide identities to the PEDV strains previously identified in US swine. However, these five PEDV cases shared 99.6 to 100 per cent nucleotide identities with each other based on the S1 sequences.

Phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 sequences demonstrated that aforementioned 10 PEDV cases clustered together with PEDV strains identified in US since April 2013. However, the aforementioned five PEDV cases clustered very differently from the PEDV strains previously identified in US swine. Sequence alignment showed that the S1 sequences of these five PEDV cases had some deletions and insertions compared to PEDVs previously identified in US.

Based on the data currently available, it appears unlikely that this strain is a mutant evolved from PEDV previously identified in US swine. Determination of the entire genome sequences of these new PEDVs are in progress and will help determine the origin of the viruses.

The PEDV real-time RT-PCR offered at ISU VDL is targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. The N-gene is known to be a conserved portion of the PEDV genome. Thus far, the PEDV N-gene real-time RT-PCR being conducted at the ISU VDL seems to be readily detecting these new PEDVs. The full-length N gene sequences of the new PEDVs have been determined and were similar to the PEDVs previously identified in the US.

Further Reading

You can view the phylogenetic analysis of the PEDV S1 portion nucleotide sequences by clicking here.
Find out more about PED by clicking here.

ThePigSite News Desk

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