ThePigSite Quick Disease Guide
Actinobacillus Pleuropneumonia (App)
The organism may affect the pig from weaning through to slaughter but usually the age is from 8 to 16 weeks. The incubation period is very short, as little as 12 hours. Toxins produce severe damage to the lungs.
App is uncommon in sows unless they are naive or disease is triggered by PRRS or flu.
- Unusual in adult and very young pigs unless a naive herd.
- Sudden death/mortality may be low or high - only sign a bloody discharge from the nose.
- Sudden death/mortality - no symptoms and more than 1 % of such deaths. Post mortems required.
- A short cough perhaps 1 to 3 coughs at a time - different from the prolonged coughing of EP.
- Severe heavy breathing difficulties.
- Blueing of the ears.
- Badly affected pigs are:
- - Severely depressed.
- Off feed.
- Body temperatures are high.
- Haemorrhage from the nose.
- Lameness - occassionally.
- Pale pigs.
- Poor pigs - wasting and hairy.
Causes / Contributing factors
- Contaminated or carrier incoming pigs.
- Can be spread mechanically by equipment and visitors.
- Water deprivation.
- Low temperature and low humidity predisposes.
- Stress / movement.
- Nutritional changes.
- Continual production.
- High stocking densities.
This is based on herd history, clinical signs, post-mortem examinations including slaughter house checks and culture of the organism in the laboratory. The lesions in the lung are very characteristic. Serology can be used to identify different serotypes but the interpretation can be difficult because of cross reactions between serotypes.
App must be differentiated from enzootic pneumonia, PRRS, flu, and Salmonella choleraesuis pneumonia.