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When reviewing the practices of high-performing producers, the majority felt that three inseminations per oestrus gave superior results. Never try to Al a sow that is not in standing oestrus. Where producers are unable to operate a twice-per-day heat detection regime. Table 2 gives a guide of a once-per-day heat detection system.

Therefore from Table 2:
    1. Sows found in oestrus on day 4 am are served day 5 am 9 Sows found in oestrus on day 5 am would be served day 5pm
    2. Sows found in oestrus on day 6 plus or returns are usually inseminated immediately. Note: This table is only a guide and may have to be modified according to unit routine.
MANAGEMENT POINTS
    1. Handle sows quietly and gently
    2. Always use a designated insemination pen where nose-to-nose contact with a boar can be maintained S Always try to stimulate the sow during insemination with back pressure, flank/udder rubbing
    3. Always allow sows to "rest" for 10-15 min after insemination, before rejoining the weaned group
    4. Final movement and regrouping of sows should be achieved within 24hrs of the end of oestrus, so that embryo implantation is not impaired. Practically, where groups of newly served sows are involved, they should not be mixed beyond day 8 post-weaning. Further movement Or mixing should not be attempted until after day 28-35 of pregnancy
    5. Record all actions to facilitate the learning process
    6. Record when standing oestrus finishes to help identification of correct timing for insemination
    7. Do not place sows within sight or smell of a boar immediately prior to entering the service area. Boars should never be housed in the pre-service area.
    8. Regularly get a fresh observer to review the service regime in operation.
BATCH FARROWING SYSTEMS

All the points in sections 'Identification of Oestrus' and Timing of Oestrus' are applicable to batch farrowing. In addition, consider the following points: H Due to the large number of sows to be served, several inseminators should be used to reduce inseminator "fatigue" H Four hours maximum, for the total insemination process. This is a guide which will allow roughly equal time between the daily inseminations ina two-service system and time to re-check likely sows in a once-daily mating system

    1. Once-daily mating systems should not have insemination going on from dawn to dusk, as this can lead to operator fatigue and inaccuracy
    2. An efficient process of movement and control of sows is essential, so that staff can accomplish the identification of oestrus and the insemination process smoothly and efficiently without risk to themselves
    3. Designate the serving week for just that process - do not cut corners
    4. Ensure monitoring for returns is also made part of the "mating week"
    5. Treat each sow as an individual, it is batch farrowing hot BULK service.

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