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The insemination process cannot be rushed. Depending on chosen service timing policy, insemination may be carried out immediately after oestrous detection or may be delayed.

    1. Nose-to-nose contact with a "chatty" active boar, is essential during Al. The pheromones produced in the boar's saliva induce the intense receptive period of oestrus, where oxytocin release in the sow causes strong standing response and regular wave-like contractions of the uterus. It is these essential contractions that draw the semen from the gene flat pack, through the uterus and up to the site of fertilisation
    2. Sows should be segregated from boar contact for a minimum of one hour (preferably more) prior to oestrous checking and insemination
    3. Boar contact should be maintained throughout insemination and for the 10 minute "rest period" after insemination, when the uterine contractions will continue to move semen up the reproductive tract
    4. During standing oestrus, oxytocin is released in surges. These surges generally last for approximately 10-12 minutes.
    1. The stockperson must mimic some of the stimulation normally provided by the boar i.e. back pressure, flank/udder rubbing.
    1. At is potentially a very hygienic means of fertilising a gilt/sow. It eliminates the possible transfer of infection from direct contact with the boar. Clean the vulva with a dry paper towel to clean away dirt that may contaminate the head of the catheter. The catheter should only be removed from its polythene cover, immediately prior to insertion. Do not hold the catheter in the mouth and always use a new catheter on each sow.
    1. The lips of the vulva are gently parted, to allow the head of the catheter to be inserted and to only have contact with the interior of the vulva. The head of the catheter is inserted into the vulva and gently pushed forward and upwards at an angle of 45 degrees into the reproductive tract, being careful to miss the entrance to the bladder. When a firm resistance is felt, the catheter is pulled slightly back to achieve a firm lock.
    1. Once the catheter is firmly locked in place, the flat pack is raised above the level of the vulva to an angle of 45 degrees above the horizontal. The uterine contractions will) suck the semen out of the flat pack, into othe uterine tractso[ With a good insemination this process will be completed ire 2-3 minutes but may take up to 5 minutes.
    1. The catheter is left in the sow for 5 minutes to continue the cervical stimulation and maintain uterine contractions. At the end of semen uptake, the catheter should be doubled over and bound in this position by threading the 'bend* through the hole at the end of the flat pack. This prevents "back flow" of semen. Record quality of insemination by scoring T-5. This will be useful at a later date to analyse effectiveness of service. Allow the sow to rest for 10 minutes and then return her to her weaned group
    2. Record any events like bleeding.

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