Which countries are free from which diseases?

calendar icon 9 November 2018
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Free, fringe and enzootic areas

Pig producing regions of the world can be classified as free, fringe or enzootic.

Free describes those regions, countries or continents which are free from the causal agent of a particular disease.

Fringe refers to areas which are generally free but which are always under threat of re-infection from outside ( for example through the importation of disease-carrying animals or animal products). Fringe areas may suffer sporadic outbreaks which then have to be controlled and stamped out. Such outbreaks may occur several times a year, or several years apart.

Enzootic refers to those areas that are permanently infected. The infection is endemic (enzootic) in them.

The risk of disease to your herd

If, in relation to a disease described in this section, you farm in a free area, it poses no risk to your herd and you need not concern yourself further about it. If, however, your farm is in a fringe area then it is of concern because there is a risk to your herd. Your herd or your neighbours' herd might be where an outbreak starts or spreads to. Since it is likely that a serious exotic disease is under government control, it is probably mandatory for you to report it if you suspect it. It follows that you should have some idea what it looks like if only to know when to seek help. If you farm in a fringe area you should also have some idea of what precautions you should take to prevent it entering your herd. You should also be aware of what the authorities are likely to do if the disease is confirmed in your herd. Finally, if a disease described in this chapter is enzootic in the region in which you farm it is not, from your viewpoint, an exotic disease but is a constant threat to the herd. You had better be aware of it and take action to keep it out.

Which countries are free from which diseases?

Fig.12-1 highlights the important disease. You can then read more about the disease situation in your country. Bear in mind though that this is thought to be the situation at the time of writing. It may have changed by the time you read this. Also, whereas the information in some countries is fairly reliable, in others it is not and in some there is very little information. The most reliable information is that in the countries listed in North and South America, the Antipodes and the EU.

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