PRRSV and H1N1 Detection in Individual Blood Samples, Nasal Swabs and Pen Oral Fluids in Longitudinal Study in Post Weaning Pigs

Oral fluids have recently been used as a surveillance tool for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv), Swine Influenza virus ( SIV) and Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
calendar icon 14 April 2017
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Methods to collect samples and analysis is most important to detect viruses. The sampling of oral fluids through cotton rope, where animals chew on the material and deposit oral fluid, represents an easy method to collect samples in pig pen. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare the detection of PRRSv and SIV with different sampling approaches through individual blood, nasal swab and oral fluid. The study was carried out in farrow to growing herd in North Italy with endemic PRRSv and H1N1 infection in the post-weaning site. Pigs were sampled in a longitudinal study of 5 groups of 15 pigs from 25 to 85 days of age. Three sampling were included in the protocol: 25 days of life when/during? weaning (T1), at 55 days (T2) and at 85 days of life (T3). Samples were tested by RT-PCR.

The analyses of PRRSv showed that the infection was detected earlier in blood samples compared to nasal swabs and oral fluid with a great variability among the three sampling times. The overall prevalence in blood samples was 66, 85 and 93% at T1, T2 and T3 respectively. In contrast, virus was detected later in oral fluid reaching comparable values to blood samples in T2 and T3 with overall prevalence of 20, 86 and 86%. Nasal swabs showed the lowest levels of infected animal with prevalence of 9, 22 and 25%. H1N1 was mostly detected in oral fluid with overall prevalence values of 13, 40 and 20% while in nasal swabs virus was detected in 0, 4 and 6% of the samples respectively.

Surveillance of H1N1 and PRRSV in post-weaning pigs by oral fluids has allowed to know and monitor the health status of different batches of pigs for fattening before transfer.

Oral fluid sampling is a promising approach for increasing the efficiency and cost effectiveness of virus surveillance in swine herds even if the infection status of the barn is considered variable. It is easy to performed, doesn’t stress to animals, it is a rapid testing method and shows reliable diagnostic performance.

Alborali G., Giacomini E., Ferrari N., Pasquali P., Pitozzi A., Boniotti B., Cordioli P

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Ludmila Starostina

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