The role of Porcine Circovirus type 2 antibodies in PMWS

By P Blanchard, D Mahe, R Cariolet, C Truong, M Le Dimna, C Arnauld, N Rose, E Eveno, E Albina, F Madec and A Jestin - This is an abstract from a study of the role Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) plays in the pathogenesis of PMWS in swine.
calendar icon 20 July 2003
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Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in swine. As PCV2 displays significant homology with PCV1 (a non-pathogenic virus) at the nucleotide and amino-acid level, a discriminative antigen is needed for specific serological diagnosis.

The ORF2-encoded capsid protein from PCV2 was used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GST-fused capsid protein from PCV2 and GST alone (both expressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected cells) were used as antigens for serodiagnosis.

The specificity of the ELISA for detection of PCV2 antibodies was demonstrated in sera from pigs experimentally infected with PCV1, PCV2 and other swine viruses. The semi-quantitative nature of the test was evaluated versus an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The ELISA was performed on 322 sera from pigs in eight Brittany herds and compared with IPMA.

The sensitivity (98.2%) and specificity (94.5%) of this test were considered suitable for individual serological detection. High PCV2 seroprevalence was found in sows and pigs at the end of the growth phase (18-19 weeks) in all eight herds. The seroprevalence in piglets (11-17 weeks) was statistically correlated with clinical symptoms of PMWS (93% in affected versus 54%, in non-affected farms).

A cohort study performed in PMWS-free farms showed that 57% of piglets exhibited active seroconversion after 13 weeks, indicating that PCV2 infection occurred earlier in PMWS-affected piglets.

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Source: PubMed - National Center for Biotechnology Information - July 2003

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