CME: Hog Inventories by State

US - Today we will look at hog inventories, by state, and how those numbers have changed over time for both market hogs and breeding animals, write Steve Meyer and Len Steiner.
calendar icon 26 January 2016
clock icon 3 minute read

Starting with breeding hogs, according to the USDA-NASS December 1 Hogs and Pigs report, in 2006 Iowa and North Carolina had the largest breeding hog inventories at 1.06 million and 1.01 million head, respectively. The majority of the breeding hog inventory was located in the Midwest and Southeast, and the U.S. total breeding hog inventory in 2006 was 6.1 million hogs. Fast forward 10 years to 2015’s December Hogs and Pigs report.

Comparing the two time frames (see graph), we can see there has been some movement in breeding hog operations in the US. Iowa and North Carolina remain the top states for breeding hog inventory however, Iowa’s inventory has increased to 1.03 million hogs, but North Carolina’s has decreased to 870,000 hogs.

Total US breeding hog inventory has decreased by 114,000 head since 2006. Inventory decreases and movement has largely come out of the Southeast and upper Midwest, in that 10 year timeframe. Shifting production areas largely follows the ethanol boom and expansion of corn production in the Northern Plains, and to some extent in the Southern Plains, although cheaper land costs there would certainly be a driver also.

Moving to the market hog side, in 2006 the US inventory totaled 56.4 million head, with the largest by state inventories in Iowa (16.2 million) and North Carolina (8.5 million). In 2015, compared to 2006, the US had 5.9 million more market hogs – thanks to the fast paced improvement in pigs per litter.

Following the breeding hog movement, Iowa’s market hog inventory increased by 3.5 million while North Carolina’s inventory decreased by 560,000 hogs. Over that 10 year period, there has been a significant shift of market hogs out of the Southeast and into the Midwest and northern Corn Belt region. Interestingly, Texas and Oklahoma have increased their breeding hog inventories but decreased their market hog inventories, suggesting more hog movement from breeding operations to feeding operations, south to north.

Taking a more current approach, year-to-year changes in Dec. 1st total hogs and pigs showed small inventory increases in Great Plains and Midwest feeding regions, for a total count shown in the bottom left hand map.

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