Biosecurity: Transport and Vehicle Controls

By Jake Waddilove, MA, VetMB, MRCVS. The importance of biosecurity for all vehicles associated with pig production cannot be stressed enough, as they provide an excellent vector through which disease can spread. And this is particularly the case with livestock and feed vehicles, but it also applies to any other transport visiting pig premises.
calendar icon 11 April 2008
clock icon 7 minute read
Jake Waddilove MRCVS

The table below provides details of the independently proven efficacy of DuPont™ Virkon® S against disease causing pathogens which can be spread by vehicles.

Cleaning and disinfection must be carried out to minimise the possibility of transmission of disease such as these.

Our unique Transport Biosecurity programme provides pig farmers and hauliers with step-by-step procedures to follow which if adhered to can help reduce disease transmission via transportation of livestock.

Disease Infectious organism Dilution rate Test Country
Salmonellosis Salmonella typhimurium
Salmonella choleraesuis
Swine Dysentery Serpulina hyodysenteriae 1:400 UK University of Glasgow
Transmissible Gastroenteritis TGE Virus 1:450 UK VLA
Foot and Mouth disease FMD Virus 1:1300 UK VLA
Swine Vesicular disease Swine Enterovirus 1:200 UK VLA
Classical Swine Fever CSF Virus 1:150 UK VLA

Vehicle Disinfection Summary

In addition to livestock haulage vehicles all vehicles e.g. feed lorries and contractors must follow this summary to reduce the potential for transmission of disease:

  • Only allow essential vehicles to enter the site.
  • All vehicles visiting the unit should be kept outside the biosecurity perimeter if at all possible.
  • Vehicles should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected according to the DuPont Animal Health Solutions Vehicle Biosecurity Programme prior to arrival at the unit.
  • Wheels, tyres and wheel arches should be cleaned and disinfected upon arrival at the unit using wheel dips or sprays where provided.
  • Personnel should use foot dips, protective clothing and the DuPont Hand Hygiene System prior to entry to premises.

Cleansing and Disinfecting Agents

DuPont™ Neutrafoam™ Dilution: 1:100 (1 KG in each 100 litres)
Rate: 500 ml/m²
DuPont™ Virkon® S Dilution: 1:100 (1 KG in each 100 litres)
Rate: 300 ml/m²

Vehicle Cleansing and Disinfection Procedures

Before undertaking the following biosecurity programme please ensure that the person carrying out the procedure is wearing clean and disinfected protective clothing and the vehicle to be cleaned and disinfected is outside the biosecurity perimeter.

STAGE 1. Dry Cleaning - Removing Organic Soiling

It is essential to remove all gross organic soiling from the vehicle as dung and refuse can contain high levels of contamination and are a major source of infection.

Using brushes, shovels, forks or a mechanical scraper ensure the following areas are covered:

Inside the Transporter

  • Starting on the top deck then working down, first scrape out all soiled bedding and refuse, then brush the floors, sidewalls and division gates of the trailer ensuring that any organic material is removed from the feed and water delivery pipes.
  • Ensure that any gross organic material is removed from the tail lift/ramp and gates of the truck by scraping and brushing.
Outside the Transporter
  • Particular attention must be paid to the removal of organic material from the underside of the vehicle where deposits can build up. Using a stiff hand brush (or pressure washer where necessary), ensure that any deposits of mud, straw etc are removed from the wheels, wheel arches, tyres, mudguards and exposed chassis of the vehicle.

All soiled bedding and refuse should be disposed of in accordance with regional local authority or governmental guidelines.

STAGE 2. Cleaning & Sanitizing

Following the removal of the soiled bedding and refuse, high levels of infective material will still remain. Cleaning with Neutrafoam™ at a dilution of 1:100 for spraying, or 1:50 for foaming, will ensure that greasy deposits do not remain on any surfaces. Using a detergent such as Neutrafoam™ also reduces the time taken to clean by up to 60%, and reduces the spread of disease in washing water.

Apply with either a knapsack sprayer or pressure washer using the appropriate application rate (500ml/sq.m for normal application 250ml/sq.m for foam application). If using a pressure washer, ensure that it is set on a low pressure setting using a 45º angle jet.

  • Using the brush attachment for the pressure washer, start at the top and work down each side of the cab and trailer working the Neutrafoam™solution into the surfaces and any crevices.
  • Using the lance attachment at low pressure apply Neutrafoam™ to the wheels, wheel arches, tyres, mudguards and underside of the vehicle.
  • Inside the trailer, starting on the top deck and working down to the bottom, ensure that the ceiling, sides, divisions and floors are covered thoroughly with detergent solution.
  • Attention must be paid to the loading ramp, tail lift and gates.
  • Ensure that all equipment stored in the belly box of the vehicle such as shovel, brush, pig board etc are removed and washed then apply Neutrafoam™ solution to the inside of the belly box.
  • Allow at least 10 minutes for the detergent to penetrate and loosen dirt from all surfaces before rinsing at high pressure with clean water.
  • It is essential to have removed all organic material before proceeding to the disinfection stage.

STAGE 3. Disinfection

The level of disease organisms, particularly viruses, present after cleaning could still be high enough to offer a serious disease challenge. The use of a broad spectrum virucidal disinfectant, such as Virkon® S, is essential

Apply Virkon® S disinfectant solution at a dilution of 1:100 (1KG in each 100 litres) and application rate of 300 ml/sq.m at low pressure:

  • Outside of vehicle, start at the top and work down each side.
  • Ensure that special attention is paid to the wheel arches, tyres, mudguards and underside of the vehicle.
  • Inside the vehicle, starting on the top deck and working down to the bottom, ensure that ceiling, sides, divisions and floors are disinfected thoroughly.
  • Attention must be paid to the loading ramp and tail gate lift.
  • Ensure that all washed equipment from the belly box of the vehicle such as shovel, brush and pig boards are sprayed or soaked in a solution of Virkon® S.
  • Disinfect all internal surfaces of the belly box before returning the cleaned and disinfected equipment.
In very rare instances, Virkon® S may affect untreated metals, inferior or damaged galvanised metals. Therefore, we strongly recommend rinsing these surfaces with clean water after disinfection, ensuring a minimum contact time of at least 5 minutes.

STAGE 4. Cleansing & Disinfecting the Cab

  • Remove all removable items from the cab of the vehicle including the floor mats; clothing, Wellington boots etc.
  • Using a dustpan and brush remove any debris from within the cab and dispose via refuse sacks.
  • Ensure that the foot pedals are free from any organic material.
  • Using a soft hand brush and a solution of Neutrafoam™, at a dilution rate of 1:100, clean the cab floor, mats and foot pedals allowing at least 10 minutes for the detergent to penetrate and loosen dirt before rinsing with clean water.
  • Using a clean cloth soaked in a solution of Virkon® S, at a dilution rate of 1:100, disinfect the cab floor, rubber mats and foot pedals. Do not apply disinfectant solution to fabrics.
  • Ensure that all items packed back into the cab are clean and disinfected.
And finally ...
  • Park the vehicle on a slope to drain and dry.
  • Once the vehicle is removed from the wash area, wash down the concrete surface with a 1:100 solution of Neutrafoam™ making sure no muck or debris remains.
  • Wash and disinfect waterproof overalls and boots.
  • For environmental awareness take care to avoid any solutions entering surface water drains or water courses.

Important Note
The specified uses and registered claims for Neutrafoam™ and Virkon® S may vary from country to country. Please contact DuPont Animal Health Solutions directly to verify country specific approved usages.

April 2008
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