Finding Value in Alternative Feed Ingredients

By Ruurd Zijlstra and Ken Engele, and published by the Prairie Swine Center - Mustard meal might be a valuable ingredient for the swine industry domestically and internationally. In some export markets, concerns exist regarding the voluntary feed intake of pigs fed mustard instead of canola meal in their diets.
calendar icon 5 July 2005
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Mustard Meal

This study will therefore compare two diets with either mustard meal or canola meal in the diet at a 15% inclusion rate, which is an inclusion rate that should allow to assess if the feed intake concerns are indeed valid, or not and if growth performance differences exist.

A diet containing 15% canola meal was formulated based on 48% corn, 17% soybean meal and 15% wheat was formulated to 3.45 Mcal DE/kg and 2.60 g apparent digestible lysine/Mcal DE. Replacing canola meal 1:1 with mustard meal created a diet containing 15% mustard meal. The pelleted diets were each fed for 28 days to grower pigs housed 5 pigs per pen.

The standard chemical characteristics of mustard meal and canola meal are listed in Table 1. For each of the four weeks of the experiment, voluntary or average daily feed intake of the grower pigs increased gradually, and differences in voluntary feed intake were not observed between pigs fed mustard meal or canola meal (Table 2).

For the first three weeks of the experiment, average daily gain and feed efficiency did not differ statistically between pigs fed mustard meal or canola meal (P > 0.10). However, pigs fed mustard meal grew 17% more and had a 6-% unit higher feed efficiency during the last week of the experiment (P < 0.05), resulting in an overall tendency for pigs fed mustard meal to grow faster than pigs fed canola meal.

Table 1. Analyzed nutrient content of mustard and canola meal
Nutrient, % as Fed
Mustard Meal
Canola Meal
Crude Protein
Acid Detergent Fibre
Nuetral Detergent Fibre
Crude Fibre
Crude Fat
Average Daily Feed Intake (g/d)
day 1-7
day 8-14
day 15-21
day 22-28
Total day 1-28
Average Daily Gain (g/d)
day 1-7
day 8-14
day 15-21
day 22-28
Total day 1-28
Feed Efficiency (%)
day 1-7
day 8-14
day 15-21
day 22-28
Total day 1-28
ab, means differred (P<0.05); AB, means differed (P<0.10)

The Bottom Line

Pigs fed mustard meal tended to have a 5% better growth performance and had a 2.5%-unit better feed efficiency and an equal feed intake than pigs fed canola meal. Mustard meal might thus be a good opportunity ingredient with minimally a nutritional value equal as canola meal.

Faba Beans

Faba bean (Vicia faba minor) production is not new to western Canada. Research was completed in the early 1970’s; however, tannin and other anti-nutritional factors limited the use faba beans in swine diets. Presently, zero-tannin faba bean varieties are available. The general purpose of this project was to remove barriers, which were preventing increased production and use of zero-tannin faba beans in Alberta, especially in the Parkland and Peace regions.

Analysis of the nutrient content of zero-tannin faba beans and a subsequent performance study confirming equal performance were thus needed. Objectives were (1) to determine chemical characteristics, energy and amino acid (AA) digestibility, the content of DE and NE, and tannin content of zero-tannin faba beans; and (2) to compare growth performance variables and carcass quality of grower-finisher pigs fed zero-tannin faba beans to soybean meal.

One sample of zero-tannin faba beans was collected in Alberta.

Exp. 1. Digestibility Study

Energy and amino acid digestibility was tested using cannulated 60-kg barrows. Energy digestibility was tested in a diet containing 96% faba beans. Amino acid digestibility was tested in a diet containing 62% faba beans and 35% corn starch. Diets were fed at 3 x maintenance. Faeces were collected for 2-d followed by 2-d collection of ileal digesta. Standardized AA, DE and NE contents were determined.

Exp. 2. Performance Study

100 grower-finisher pigs in 20 pens had free access to either a soybean meal or faba bean-based diet regime from 30 –115 kg. Diets were formulated to equal NE and SID (Grower (30-60 kg), 2.40/3.95; Finisher I (60-90 kg), gilts 2.38/3.15, barrows 2.38/2.76; Finisher II (90-115 kg), gilts 2.38/2.92, barrows 2.35/2.55; Mcal kg-1 NE/g SID lysine Mcal-1 NE, respectively), with up to 30% faba beans. Pigs were weighed, feed intake was measured, and carcass measurements were obtained.

The chemical characteristics (Table 1) and energy (Table 2) and AA (Table 3) profiles suggest that zero-tannin faba beans have a desirable nutrient content (slightly better than peas; NRC 1998). Overall, ADG (Figure 1) and ADFI (data not shown) did not differ between zero-tannin faba beans or soybean meal (P > 0.10) suggesting that faba bean inclusion up to 30% might be possible without reducing ADG. The higher ADG for barrows during the Grower phase and higher lean depth for gilts fed soybean meal compared to zero-tannin faba beans (Figure 2) suggest that the available energy content needs further investigation.

The Bottom Line

The chemical characteristics, energy and amino acid (AA) digestibility, the content of DE and NE, and tannin content of zero-tannin faba beans were determined and indicate, together with the subsequent growth performance variables and carcass quality of grower-finisher pigs, that zero-tannin faba beans can replace soybean meal and result in similar performance in grower-finisher pigs.

Source: Prairie Swine Centre - June 2005
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